Elgin, James Bruce, eighth Earl of


Elgin, James Bruce, eighth Earl of
(1811-1863)
   E His qualities as a statesman, 3-4; his success in Canada, 4; his lineage, 5-6; his personal character, 6-8; education, 6; his contemporaries at college, 7; enters Parliament, 8; accepts governorship of Jamaica, 9; death of his first wife, 9; his successful administration in Jamaica, 10-12; returns to England, 1846, 13; accepts governor-generalship of Canada, 13; his second marriage, 14; influence of Durham, 15; contrasted with Durham, 15; his arrival in Montreal, 1847, 16, 26, 40, 41; views on the political situation, 41-43; obtains from Imperial government reimbursement of plague expenses, 48; his tour through Upper Canada, 49; on agricultural associations, 50; dissolves Parliament, 50; calls upon La Fontaine and Baldwin to form administration, 52; comments on character of new government, 52-53; his letters to Lord Grey, 54-56; views on the French question, 55-56; his antipathy to Papineau, 56; on economic conditions, 57-58; on annexation sentiment, 58; on inter-imperial trade, 58-59; his course in connection with Rebellion Losses Bill, 71-78; attacked by mob, 74; Imperial government approves his action in signing bill, 78; second visit to Upper Canada, 79; raised to peerage, 80; condemns Annexation Manifesto, 81; on causes of commercial depression, 82; urges reciprocity with United States, 82, 101, 107; vindication of his policy on Rebellion Losses Bill, 83-84; views on education, 88-89; his admiration for Baldwin, 104; on parliamentary representation, 118-119; on an elective Upper House, 120-121; visits England in 1853, 123; tribute from United States minister in London, 123-124; visits Washington and negotiates Reciprocity Treaty, 124; resents John Sandfield Macdonald's rebuke, 129; on the appeal to the country in 1854, 132, 133; opens fifth Parliament, 135; advises repeal of Imperial Act of 1840, 164-165, 167; on the attitude of the Church of England in Canada, 169; his efforts to kill annexation sentiment, 189-190, 194, 195; his efforts to secure reciprocity, 196; visits United States and negotiates treaty, 197; signs treaty June 8, 1854, 198, 201; succeeded as governor-general by Sir Edmund Head, Dec. 19, 1854, 203; parting address from Legislature, 203; his reply, 204-205; his last speech in Quebec, 205-208; returns to England, 209; views on colonial self-defence, 209-212; accepts mission to China, 212; his part in suppressing Indian Mutiny, 213; negotiates treaty of Tientsin, 214; official visit to Japan, 214; negotiates treaty of Yeddo, 214; returns to England, 215; British apathy as to colonies, 215; becomes postmaster-general in Palmerston government, 215; Lord Rector of Glasgow University, 215; his second mission to China, 215; governor-general of India, 216; his tour in Northern India, 218; holds Durbar at Agra, 218; suppresses Nahabu outbreak, 218; illness and death, Nov. 20, 1863, 218-219; his views on Imperial honours, 222; his principles of self-government, 227; on British connection, 229, 231; on the status of a constitutional governor, 231-232; beneficial results of his policy, 233, 235; on colonial self-government, 239-240; on the American political system, 257-258. B On causes of depression in Canada, 32; his far-sighted statesmanship,--views on imperial unity, 33; introduces self-government in Canada, 33; and the Rebellion Losses Bill, 34-38. Md Succeeds Cathcart as governor-general, 26; upholds responsible government, 32-33; gives assent to Rebellion Losses Bill, 36-38; mobbed in Montreal, 38; sober second judgment of the people justifies his action in approving the bill, 41; his action approved by British government, 42; effects Reciprocity Treaty with United States, 45, 98, 216. T Brings about Reciprocity Treaty, 29. BL Mentioned, 75; attitude to responsible government, 138; chosen by Liberal government as governor-general, 272; his character, 272; his grasp of the colonial situation, and attitude towards responsible government, 273; first to apply successfully the principle, 273; liberally interprets his instructions, 274; marries Durham's daughter, 274; a thorough believer in Durham's doctrines, 274; his statesmanlike grasp of the true attitude of the governor, 274-275; enters Montreal, January, 1847, 275; Hincks on, 275-276; Draper on, 277; dissolves Parliament, Dec. 6, 1847, 278; his solution of the Canadian question, 282-283; calls Parliament at Montreal, Feb. 25, 1848, 283; sends for La Fontaine to form ministry, 284; his high opinion of second La Fontaine-Baldwin ministry, 285; interview with Baldwin and La Fontaine, 285-286; brings session to a close, 286; on commercial depression in Canada, 301; consents to Rebellion Losses Bill, 321; mobbed in Montreal, 305, 322, 324; his attitude towards the bill, 332-334; loyal reception to in Toronto, 338. R Concedes full measure of responsible government, 126. C On education in Quebec, 5; urges Cartier to enter Cabinet, 22; and the Rebellion Losses Bill, 32; his letter to Lord Grey on the state of the country in 1849, 44; most enlightened and most popular governor before Confederation, 98; aids cause of responsible government, 98. H Attends public dinner to Joseph Howe at Toronto 1851, 138; represents British North America at Boston railway celebration, 1851, 250. Mc Assents to Amnesty Act, 480.
   Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.; Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years; Dict. Nat. Biog.; Walrond, Letters of Lord Elgin; Wrong, The Earl of Elgin; Le Moine, Le Comte d'Elgin(R. S. C., 1894).

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